In this book, the authors move away from the long lists of formative assessment techniques teachers have seen in the past. They have spent two years with teachers in real classrooms, boiling the practice down to five essential techniques that will move the needle in learning. These techniques are all realistic, manageable, can be built into lessons and applied every single day. They are: Observation, Interviews, "Show Me," Hinge Questions, and Exit Tasks. This book delves into each of these five techniques, offering particular tools to guide the use of each of the techniques, and suggested activities (at primary, intermediate, and middle grade levels) for their use. These activities will focus on the mathematics at each grade level and will co-reference Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and other similar standards.